European Power-to-Gas Platform (2018) Position Paper: Power-to-Gas is inevitable for further growth in renewable energy: The business case still a challenge
Tractebel & Hinicio (2017) Study on early business cases for H2 in energy storage and more broadly power to H2 applications
DENA (2015) P2G system solution. Opportunities, challenges and parameters on the way to marketability.
Energy policy objectives. The German energy supply system is changing fundamentally. The Federal Government set the course for a sustainable energy supply with its current Energy Concept and the resolutions on an accelerated energy transition. For example, greenhouse gas emissions are to be reduced by at least 80 percent by 2050 compared with 1990. The Federal Government has also set other ambitious goals, e.g. increasing the proportion of gross final energy consumption supplied via renewable energy to 60 percent by 2050. Innovative technical solutions are required to reach these goals and guarantee a secure and economical energy supply. Power to Gas is a particularly promising system solution. The innovative system solution. The idea behind Power to Gas is to convert electricity from renewable energy sources to hydrogen or methane. The renewable gas can be transpor ted in the existing gas infrastructure, stored and then used in a range of applications. It is reconverted when in demand. Likewise, the direct use of hydrogen, for instance in the mobility sector or in refineries, is possible. Power to Gas is a cross-sectoral system solution with which renewable energy sources can be integrated into the energy supply system. Power to Gas can help reduce CO2 emissions in various sectors of consumption in that the renewable gas produced via Power to Gas replaces fossil fuels in mobility, industry, heat supply and power generation. As an electricity storage method, Power to Gas can also contribute to compensating the increasing fluctuations in electricity generation from wind and solar energy, and facilitate long-term use of electricity that could not be integrated directly into the electricity grid. Status quo and outlook. Power to Gas has the potential to be a versatile, cross-sectoral technology supporting the implementation of the energy transition and integrating renewable energy into the different energy consumption areas. The technology is mature and ready for use. However, until it is fully ready for the market, in particular with regard to economic use, some central regulatory parameters need adjusting. This publication presents key data and facts about the Power to Gas system solution and illustrates the progress made in its implementation, as well as the remaining challenges. Power to gas parameters to be fine tuned before full market entry: 1. Hydrogen and methane from renewable energy must be recognised as biofuels. 2. Incentives designed to increase the flexibility of the electricity system. 3. Market launch of renewable hydrogen and methane by 2022 requires political support. 4. Extension of tax reduction on natural gas as a fuel. 5. Exemption of energy storage facilities from end user taxes.
KIWA&E4tech (2016) DECC desk study on the development of a hydrogen fired appliance supply chain
Summary One proposal for the long term decarbonisation of heat is to replace natural gas with hydrogen. To do this, it would be necessary to develop appliances, such as boilers, hobs, ovens and industrial burners that can use 100% hydrogen instead of natural gas. The aim of this study was to investigate the technical challenges and costs associated with developing such appliances and to discuss how these barriers might be addressed. The study covers the following areas: • Safety issues, training and standards (both product and installation standards) • Costs and timetables for the development of different hydrogen appliances for small numbers of prototype appliances (around 1,000) • Costs and timetables for the development of appliances for large scale roll-out (around 100,000 per year. This study included a review of the available information about technologies for using hydrogen to supply heat, primarily in domestic settings but also at larger scale in the industrial, public and commercial sectors. Stakeholder engagement was undertaken with a range of natural gas appliance manufacturers and trade bodies.
World Energy Council (2016) E-storage: Shifting from cost to value (wind and solar applications 2016) – Report
Report from the World Energy Council on E-storage. This report seeks to interrogate what the cost base of an array of storage technologies really means. The key conclusion is that a narrow focus on levelised cost alone can be misleading. Throughout the cost modelling process, the same issues repeatedly emerged, namely the importance of defining the business model under consideration and how the storage plant was being operated. The report also estimates that with the many new technologies in the pipeline, storage costs of energy will fall by as much as 70% over the next 15 years. Solar storage will become more competitive as new battery technology drives prices down, and wind storage more attractive as technical advances in areas such as composite materials enables the power generated by wind turbines to increase. In order to create the right policy environment that will unlock the potential of energy storage and capitalise on its true cost and value benefits, the report makes five recommendations to policymakers: Go beyond just costs – cheapest is not always best Examine storage through holistic case studies – generic cost estimates are not sufficient Work with operators and regulators to accelerate the development of flexible markets – often the full value of flexibility is not sufficiently recognised and monetised Establish supporting policies and an enabling regulatory framework to facilitate further commercial deployment of storage technologies Consider storage as a key component for grid expansion or extension
IRENA ETSAP (2015) Technology Briefs: Renewable energy integration in power grids
Renewable energy accounts for around 22% of global power generation, but this share is expected to double in the next 15 years, partly due to the rapid growth of variable renewable energy from solar photovoltaics and wind. This IRENA/IEA-ETSAP Technology Brief provides an overview of the main performance and costs of technologies that are used to support renewable energy grid integration, an overview of the shares of variable renewable energy across the world, and existing operational experiences in continental and island systems. There are several technology options available that can help integrate variable renewable energy into power systems. Furthermore, new advances in wind and solar technologies allow them to be used over a wider range of conditions. In the longer run, however, power systems with high shares of variable renewable power generation will require a re-thinking the traditional designs, operations, and planning practices from a technical and an economical point of view. Two immediate applications for innovative technologies and operation modes for the integration of high shares of solar photovoltaics and wind are in mini-grids and islands. Furthermore, any economic analysis of the transition towards a renewables-based system should always consider the total system costs, including social and environmental benefits. Source
ENEA Consulting (2016) The Potential of Power-to-Gas
ENEA carried out a study on the potential of power-to-gas financed by the Tuck Foundation through the program The Future of Energy and co-financed by KIC InnoEnergy. As an expert company providing consultancy in technologies and markets for energy transition, ENEA assessed the current and future potential of power-to-gas technologies with regards to the current trends on the energy markets. Source
IEA-RETD (2016) Non-individual transport – Paving the way for renewable power-to-gas (RE P2G)
As an expert company providing consultancy in technologies and markets for energy transition, ENEA carried out a study for the IEA-RETD on the potential of renewable power-to-gas for the non-individual road transport sector. Indeed, mobility is the most viable market for power-to-gas, as shown in one of ENEA’s previous study.
Here the study goes through an analysis of mobility uses and technology paths, TCO (Total Cost of Ownership) modeling and policy measures in order to provide recommendations on the potential of renewable power-to-gas mobility and on strategies and policy support to be set up to foster its development at large scale.
SFEM WG Hydrogen (2016) Final Report
MAIN OBJECTIVE The main objective of the SFEM/WG Hydrogen was to perform an analysis of the state of the art of technology and standardization and a gap analysis on the main barriers including challenges and needs. A second objective was to establish contact with key stakeholders from gas sector, grids, electric supply, mobility, the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (FCH JU) to perform the work in the most effective way and to have broad support from the stakeholders for identifying the key challenges. Also the link to EC services, DG JRC, DG RTD, DG ENER, DG GROW was seen as important. The final objective is to set a long term collaborative framework (liaison) with major bodies for strengthening cooperation between regulatory work, standardization work and RDI programs (e.g. European Commission, JRC, FCH2 JU, IEA, ISO, IEC). The scope of the working group covered the production of hydrogen through electrolysis and the transportation, distribution and usage of that hydrogen in pure form or as a natural gas dominant mixture (H2NG). In addition, actions in cross-cutting fields such as safety and training of personnel were identified. These activities will help increase the societal acceptance of hydrogen, key to a successful market uptake. KEY OUTCOMES of SFEM/WG Hydrogen Priority challenges have been identified for the various technical areas within the scope of work of the SFEM/WG Hydrogen. Recommendations are given on proposed actions and means of implementation. The actions are visualised in an action roadmap (Figure 6) in which actions are prioritised and with the required timespan indicated. Other outcomes include a clarification of expectations of industry of where and how policy and standardization can contribute to a competitive development of PtH and related issues.Technical gaps have been identified for new operational modes of electrolysers, which call for advances in technology related to performance and safety. Partial load, intermittent operation and fast response will be some of the performance requirements for electrolysers when integrated into a power-to-gas plant or for provision of ancillary services to the electricity grid. For the ancillary service market, PEM and alkaline electrolysers have good ramp rates and respond well to a change in power settings and could therefore, in principle, provide all reserve functions, both negative (absorbing power from the grid) and positive (lowering power demand by decreasing production while being operational). Interconnection standards to allow physical connection and communication between electrolysers and the grid control systems are needed, in addition to a standardization of the key performance indicators of water electrolysers. Performance standards for dynamic operating conditions are currently missing. These conditions occur for electrolysers coupled directly or indirectly to renewable energy sources, such as intermittent renewable energy sources or partial load operation. A clear understanding of electrolyser degradation and subsequent improvement of operating strategies has also been indicated as a major gap.
Energy Delta Institute et al. (2015) Smart sustainable combinations in the North Sea Area
Assessment of using the existing oil and natural gas facilities in the North Sea area for power to gas applications once these facilities are superfluous for oil and natural gas production and transport.
Greenpeace Energy (2016) Windgas
Presentation of Greenpeace Energy given by Marcel Keiffenheim (Head of Public Affairs) the 25th of February 2016 during the IGU meeting in Berlin.
World Energy Council (2016) E-storage: Shifting from cost to value (wind and solar applications 2016) – Presentation
Presentation about the report from the World Energy Council on E-storage. This report seeks to interrogate what the cost base of an array of storage technologies really means. The key conclusion is that a narrow focus on levelised cost alone can be misleading. Throughout the cost modelling process, the same issues repeatedly emerged, namely the importance of defining the business model under consideration and how the storage plant was being operated. The report also estimates that with the many new technologies in the pipeline, storage costs of energy will fall by as much as 70% over the next 15 years. Solar storage will become more competitive as new battery technology drives prices down, and wind storage more attractive as technical advances in areas such as composite materials enables the power generated by wind turbines to increase. In order to create the right policy environment that will unlock the potential of energy storage and capitalise on its true cost and value benefits, the report makes five recommendations to policymakers: Go beyond just costs – cheapest is not always best Examine storage through holistic case studies – generic cost estimates are not sufficient Work with operators and regulators to accelerate the development of flexible markets – often the full value of flexibility is not sufficiently recognised and monetised Establish supporting policies and an enabling regulatory framework to facilitate further commercial deployment of storage technologies Consider storage as a key component for grid expansion or extension
DNV GL (2015) Integration of Power to Gas and biogas supply chain
This study demonstrates to what extent methanation technology is or could be made suitable for biogas upgrading.
DNV GL (2015) Report Power to Gas project in Rozenburg, the Netherlands
This reports gives an overview of the technical assumptions and results of the Power-to-Gas demonstration project in Rozenburg, The Neherlands
FCH-JU (2015) Commercialization of Energy Storage in Europe
A fact-based analysis of the implications of projected development of the European electric power system towards 2030 and beyond for the role and commercial viability of energy storage.
ECN DNV GL (2014) Exploring the role for power-to-gas in the future Dutch energy system
This power-to-gas (PtG) system analysis study aims to identify the future role and viability of the PtG concept in the Dutch energy system (within the context of the European energy market). The complexity of the energy system requires an integrated approach in which the entire electricity and gas value chains are incorporated. The final goal is to draw conclusions on the viability of PtG in the future Dutch energy system. The future role for PtG in the Dutch energy system is assessed using both a top-down and bottom-up approach. The top-down approach involves a scenario-based modelling analysis in which a model of the integral Dutch energy system is used to simulate a future mix of technologies that achieves decarbonisation goals at the lowest cost for society. The bottom-up approach involves an analysis of three case study applications of PtG in three distinctive regions in the Dutch energy system. Both analyses aim to uncover specific determinants that may affect the role for PtG, where the modelling analysis has a focus on system factors and the case study analysis has a focus on local factors. Report can also be obtained via: http://www.dnv.com/resources/position_papers/exploring-power-to-gas-future-dutch-energy-system.asp
DNV GL (2015) Flexibility study Curtailment in 2025-2030 (PUBLIC VERSION)
By order of the North Sea Power to Gas Platform, DNV GL issued a report revealing the results of an analysis study on the potential curtailment in 2025 and 2030 in Europe. It provides quantitative information on the potential curtailment as a result of renewable energy implementation in specific European countries. Download the report here.
DNV GL (2014) Key Figures Power-to-Gas
This document is a two-pager overview of some key figures related to the power-to-gas technology and application.
Judd & Pinchbeck (2013) Power to Gas Research Roadmap
Altfelt & Pinchbeck (2013) Admissible hydrogen concentration in natural gas systems
There are proposals to inject hydrogen (H2) from renewable sources in the natural gas network. This measure would allow the very large transport and storage capacities of the existing infrastructure, particularly high-pressure pipelines, to be used for indirect electricity transport and storage.
- Summary and conclusion The results of this study show that an admixture of up to 10 % by volume of hydrogen to natural gas is possible in some parts of the natural gas system. However there are still some important areas where issues remain:
- underground porous rock storage: hydrogen is a good substrate for sulphate-reducing and sulphurreducing bacteria. As a result, there are risks associated with: bacterial growth in underground gas storage facilities leading to the formation of H2S; the consumption of H2, and the plugging of reservoir rock. A limit value for the maximum acceptable hydrogen concentration in natural gas cannot be defined at the moment. (H2-related aspects concerning wells have not been part of this project);
- steel tanks in natural gas vehicles: specification UN ECE R 110 stipulates a limit value for hydrogen of 2 vol%;
- gas turbines: most of the currently installed gas turbines were specified for a H2 fraction in natural gas of 1 vol% or even lower. 5 % may be attainable with minor modification or tuning measures. Some new or upgraded types will be able to cope with concentrations up to 15 vol%;
- gas engines: it is recommended to restrict the hydrogen concentration to 2 vol%. Higher concentrations up to 10 vol% may be possible for dedicated gas engines with sophisticated control systems if the methane number of the natural gas/hydrogen mixture is well above the specified minimum value;
- many process gas chromatographs will not be capable of analysing hydrogen.Investigations have been conducted to evaluate the impact of hydrogen as related to the above topics. At present it is not possible to specify a limiting hydrogen value which would generally be valid for all parts of the European gas infrastructure and, as a consequence, we strongly recommend a case by case analysis. Some practical recommendations are given at the end of the paper.
Oko-Institute (2014) Prufung der klimapolitischen Konsistentz und der Kosten von Methanisierungsstrategien.pdf
Muller-Syring (2013) Abschlussbericht, Entwicklung von modularen Konzepten zur Erzeugung, speicherung und einspeisung von wasserstof und methan ins Erdgasnetz.pdf
Oko-Institute (2014) Klimaschutzszenario 2050 – Zusammenfassung
Dehli (2014) Power-to-gas Speicherung von strom aus windkraft und photovoltaikanlagen in der erdgasinfrastruktur
EASE/EERA (2013) Energy Storage Technology Development Roadmap towards 2030
EASE and EERA have joined their knowledge to produce a comprehensive Roadmap describing the future European needs for energy storage in the period towards 2020-2030. The Roadmap also gives recommendations on the developments required to meet those needs. Download the technocal annex of the report. Also see: http://www.ease-storage.eu/Technical_Documents.html
DBI (2011) Power-to-Gas
DBI presentation about power-to-gas.
DNV KEMA (2013) North Sea Power to Gas Platform – Profile presentation
North Sea Power to Gas Platform – Profile presentation
DNV KEMA (2013) Systems Analyses Power to Gas – A Technology Review
By order of the Ministry of Economic Affairs and industrial parties, ECN and DNV KEMA are researching the viability and potential future role of power-to-gas (PtG) in the Dutch energy system. The report ‘Systems analyses Power to Gas: A technology review’ is the first deliverable in a larger project (TKIG01038 – Systems analyses power-to-gas pathways) that aims to assess the viability and future role of PtG in the Dutch energy system. This deliverable specifically presents an overview of static data about PtG system components and its power storage alternatives.
DNV KEMA (2013) Press Release North Sea Power to Gas Platform
On April the 25th a press article about the establishment of the North Sea Power to Gas Platform was released. Please find the English version of the press release attached.
IRENA (2013) IEA – ETSAP – Electricity Storage
Part of a set of 10 technology briefs this document provides technical background information, analyses the market potential and barriers, and provides insights for policy makers on key types of renewable energy technology. The complete set, produced by IRENA in collaboration with the International Energy Agency’s Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (IEA-ETSAP), covers 10 different technologies or processes. Source: http://www.irena.org/menu/index.aspx?mnu=Subcat&PriMenuID=36&CatID=141&SubcatID=283
Schmid (2009) Bioenergy and renewable power methane in integrated 100% renewable energy systems
A new concept of converting renewable power into methane has been developed by researchers of the Kassel University in Germany. This concept enables storage of renewable power in the natural gas network and used temporarily and spatially flexible for balancing power, for heat and for long-distance transportation. Source
SETIS (2011) Technology Map
Strategic Energy Technologies Information System (SETIS) has recently published the 2011 update to the Technology Map, which is the SET-Plan reference document on the state of knowledge for low-carbon technologies in Europe. It presents a snapshot of the current energy technology market situation. Source: http://setis.ec.europa.eu/newsroom-items-folder/2011-technology-map-of-set-plan-now-available